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And when you turn to McKinley today’s Tuesday September 18 to goes and 18 makes NPR News and English no in the let’s where we have 4% the country from Delta tonight as they chance of showers between 10:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Then a chance of rain after 1:00 AM . Cloudy with a low around 46 southwest wind 5 to 10mph to my rain likely mainly between 10:00 AM and 1:00 PM . Cloudy with a high near 53 . South winds around 15mph you were trying to kill you cases put it in Bethell , Alaska .
Nothing like what you know is are done here. It has happened before . There is no prior case like this a lawsuit over a Juno head tax on cruise ship passengers goes to court from the lack of public media this is statewide news unelected his nightly 40 safe September 18th . Good evening . I’m Laurie towns and also tonight . Researchers are studying art bubbles popping up at a golf course feared to hear about methane bubbles under grass and a golf course one very if friends those stories and more , tonight on Alaskans nicely .
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A lawsuit brought by the cruise industry challenging the city and borough of GMOs head tax on cruise passengers is headed for trial as coastal workers Jacob resident reports attorneys argued early today over whether a passenger fees are constitutional.
The in the trees lawsuit alleges the $8 in fees levied on passengers violates the US Constitution’s tonnage clause which prohibits from taxing vessels in port , the plaintiffs told the judge the framers considered safeguarding interstate commerce as important is preventing the state from making its own currency , declaring war those powers for the fence , the feds alone , the city attorneys countered that James Madison couldn’t look and see the vessels bringing more than 10,000 daily visitors into a community of 30,000 people. judge H Russel Holland asked pointed questions at times you think skeptical about the cruise industry’s argument that services paid with marine pastor fees had to be directly tied to ship operations . He pointed to public bathrooms . As an example , saying , quote out houses , far from the dock but heavily used by cruise passengers still need to be cleaned . Speaking outside the courtroom . Washington DC cruise industry attorney Jonathan better so the city aren’t legal because they’re not for goods or services like fuel hauling waste .
These are not user she says such as they were and they were particular eyes to Mira compensatory wouldn’t have an argument. What it is in such a revenue stream that the city has created and then 3 dispensing it is as it sees fit . And we believe that just blows a big hole in the constitution .
The city chance is that every items that can be reasonably paid back benefiting cruise ship passengers from Lauder cruise doctor of the bigger ships to seasonal crossing guards to control downtown traffic City Attorney Rob Palmer defended the city’s record.
We believe that we have collected fees that a reasonable and we believe that we’re spending the fees and their constitutional way for the betterment of the community and the trip industry and the passengers and sell it say this case is a really big deal for the city. And we’re doing our best . Make sure that we have a community that works .
Cruise industry lawyers told the judge they aren’t seeking repayment. They just want the city’s power to levy fees , eliminated the city countered it wouldn’t make sense to refund fees to the industry . Anyway , since they never paid a penny . It’s the cruise passengers at fork over the dollars as part of their booking . The judge had several motions and counter motions to rule on before the case the trial . In the meantime , both sides are asking for a quick resolution through summary judgment . There is also interest in this case outside you know that’s because the precedent it could set said attorneys are in uncharted waters .
Nothing like what Juno has ever done here has happened before. There is no prior case like this .
It’s been a fight the city spent $776,000 on legal defense since the lawsuit was filed in 2016. At stake is about $10 million in annual revenue to the city album could also affect the state of Alaska‘s own passenger fee last year the state collected 18.5 million dollars it all but 2.5 million with port communities . The judge from the bench . The case is not a simple matter indicated it would be some time before he would rule reporting in Juneau and Jacob Resnick .
Golfers at a course in Fairbanks regularly encounter methane bubbles people poke them with keys and light them on fire. Those bubble recently piqued the interest of a researcher who usually looks for methane bubbles in lakes and wetlands , she says . Methane formation on land could be a new frontier for us types from Alaska‘s energy desk prevented has the story .
In many respects , the newest star golf Club looks like any other golf course emerald grass dotted with ponds I for from all sides , a flock of bother geese , but it’s full of Dick and 12 like upon frozen mid Whipple that’s not by design. According to Roger Evans the owner .
25 years ago. This is all and just feel that it was all smooth really . So this is all permafrost action .
Evans is out on the golf course this morning in think boots well seeing through the waterlogged grass to health scientist Katey Walter Anthony and her 2 assistants find from methane bubbles Walter Anthony has been studying methane bubbles in Alaska and Russia for almost 20 years. She says that the reason nothing is being produced beneath the stuff likely has to do with the permafrost thought and then is described that thought triggers the breakdown of organic matter that has accumulated beneath the soil over thousands of years , it’s like opening the freezer door making it accessible to microbes that it and turn it from organic carbon in the soil organic matter back into greenhouse gases often the greenhouse gas released carbon dioxide . But when the decomposition happens in an environment without a lot of oxygen it can produce nothing too . The most obvious place for scientists to look for that kind of nothing is in lakes and wetlands because CNN water makes it hard for oxygen to get into the soil . That’s what Walter Anthony usually does research to see and to hear about methane bubbles under grass in a golf course . One is very different than the type of environment where normally sampling methane and this golf course is not exactly a wetland . But after 4 inches of rain in August . It is pretty soggy Evan says that the methane bubbles usually appear during the wet seasons spring and fall Walter Anthony things rainwater may be pooling above a layer of impermeable permafrost creating the conditions for methane production after about 20 minutes of searching we finally find what we’re looking .
Or who loses.
The bubble is sort of flat , not like the bigger ones that Evans has described as beach balls that ball drop out of the ground. But when you have the ground with your foot you can definitely tell that it’s not normal graph it wobbles like jello or as Walter Anthony‘s colleagues still a pocket puts it cynical air mattress current using a syringe . And I thought plastic bottle Walter Anthony collect several vials of methane gas .
She’ll use samples to confirm that the nothing really does come from thought organic matter in the permafrost she’s pretty sure it does. Based on the obvious permafrost are all around us . But why is the forming bubbles Walter Anthony cuts at the square of the soil . Well , probably the that little silly Leo hitter no Walter Anthony hypothesize that the density and kindness of the silt combined with the layer of grass could make it hard for the methane to escape all the traffic . The golf course gets could be part of it too . Compressing the top layer to make it even more dense that’s all interesting to Walter Anthony but what she’s really curious about is this phenomenon is happening elsewhere on land . It’s an area that I and some other colleagues have started thinking about , can you get methane forming in terrestrial environments , but it’s a very new areas of science . It’s a new area of science because grasslands and boreal forests are thought of as places where greenhouse gases are absorbed not released but it’s permafrost saw increases in the interior releasing more trapped carbon Walter Anthony wonders if that’s changing that would .